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  • Integrator schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Integrator
    If you replace the feedback resistor with a capacitor, you get an integrating amplifier. In math, an integration operation is basically the area under a curve. If we have a voltage vs time graph, and the voltage remains constant, the integral of t...
  • Summing Amplifier schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Summing Amplifier
    Let's go back to the inverting amplifier. In its original form, we had one input resistance, one feedback resistance and one input voltage; but what happens if we have two or more inputs? The math goes like this:     Vrin1 = Vin1 - Vinv The inv...
  • Opamp Configurations,Difference Amplifier schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Difference Amplifier
    So far you've learned about how to make an opamp add an inverted (negative) voltage to a reference, & to add a positive voltage by setting the reference. Since the opamp has two inputs, one inverting & one non inverting, it should be poss...
  • The non inverting amplifier schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Non inverting amplifier
    For a non inverting action, a simple way to obtain it is to keep the feedback loop in place and connecting the terminal where the input used to be connected, to ground, while feeding the input signal to the non inverting input. This makes the opa...
  • Inverting amplifier schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Inverting amplifier
    As you leaned in the intro to opamps, when under negative feedback, the voltage difference across its inputs will be close to 0v. This is achieved via compensation from the opamp output & the feedback loop. In the simplest way to achieve it is...
  • Negative Feedback schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Negative Feedbac
    Opamps have a very high intrinsic gain, something in the order of 150,000 & higher; this is called the open loop gain. This gain is not very useful by itself since it is very unstable; it changes with temperature, supply voltage & also req...
  • The Operational Amplifier OprAmp schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Operational Amplifier
    The operational amplifier is perhaps the most versatile of amplifier circuits, used many different applications as a gain component due to high stability, gain & input impedance, as well as the fact that very little external components are nee...
  • CMOS: Complementary MOSFET schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Complementary MOSFET
    Let's do a quick review of MOSFET operation. An P type MOSFET in depletion mode, apply a positive voltage enough to create a wide neutral zone and it turns off by the action of holes at the base drawing electrons to it. An N type MOSFET in deplet...
  • Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Field Effect Transistor
    Sometimes, even that small amount of current is too much, so a new FET design came into being. The Insulated Gate FET (IGFET) is another type of field effect transistor. This time, the P material is completely dumped & replaced by a metal cont...
  • Junction FET operation (JFET) Schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in JFET
    Junction FETs work with the diode junction in reverse bias, that is, a more positive voltage is applied to the cathode instead of the anode, the cathode being the gate terminal. When a gate voltage is applied, the junction depletion region widens...
  • Reactive voltage divider schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Reactive voltage divider
    Looking back at the voltage divider, it is a circuit where the voltage across the second resistor is proportional to the ratio of the second resistor divided by the total resistance of the divider. Since ohms are used for the calculations, we can...
  • Capacitive Reactance schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Capacitive Reactance
    One of the properties of capacitors is its ability to hold a charge when a voltage is applied to it. The buildup of charges inside the capacitor generates a voltage across it & in opposition of the voltage that is driving the incoming charges,...
  • Opamp Active Filters schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Opamp Active Filters
    When talking about filters in the context of electronics, it means a circuit that will block signals of a certain frequency and allow others to pass; some examples are signal filters to block signals of a certain frequency to be amplified, and sou...
  • Schmitt Trigger schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Schmitt Trigger
    This opamp configuration is derived from the simple comparator circuit: set up a reference at the non inverting & use the inverting as signal input. There is one main difference: this circuit uses feedback to move the reference point when the...
  • Window comparator schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Window comparator
    The simple comparator circuit has one inherent problem: it can only tell us if one of the input voltages is higher than the other. But what if you needed a circuit that tells us if a signal is within a range of values? you would need a circuit tha...
  • Comparator circuit schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Comparator circuit
    One of the main reasons for using opamps as active devices in circuits is that their internal gain is so high, that even if we reduce it to a tiny fraction, it will still be enough for practical purposes. This particular configuration depends on t...
  • Differentiator schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Differentiator
    The inverse function to integration is differentiation, in other words finding the derivative, which the opamp can also perform. The derivative is defined as the rate at which the function changes. By using an input capacitor instead of a resistor...
  • Active Bandpass filters schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Active Bandpass filters
    When both types of filters are combined into one, that is, a capacitor & resistor in series is used as input & a capacitor & resistor are used in parallel for the feedback, a new type of filter emerges: the bandpass filter. To see how...
  • Differentiator Revisited schematic with explanation
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Differentiator Revisited
    For the differentiator, an input capacitor was used so as to block constant signals & just output the rate of change. Some examples of calculated derivatives where for constantly changing which resulted in a constant, & the sinusoidal wave...
  • The Integrator Revisited
    on Oct 2, 2013 in Integrator Revisited
    When we first used capacitors as feedback element of an opamp the workings of the circuit was only looked at in terms of direct current, charging the capacitor. With your new knowledge of capacitive reactance, you can see how when the input signa...

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